Issue No. 1 of the Annual Volume XCVI

PIOTR ŻMIGRODZKI: New “Język Polski” and the legacy of Professor Nitsch


  • TOMASZ MIKA, DOROTA ROJSZCZAK-ROBIŃSKA, OLGA ZIÓŁKOWSKA: In search of the origin of titles in The Przemysl Meditation
    Analyses presented in the article prove the thesis, already present in science, that a significant part of titles in The Przemysl Meditation appeared in the text through its successive transformations and additions. The authors found, besides numerous linguistic arguments, also a lot of evidence of a different nature: source studies and textology. The incorporation of titles into The Przemysl Meditation was a common phenomenon in the text, the most common one was merging marginal notes into the text, left there presumably in order to make searching this huge text easier. The genesis of some of them was selecting a fragment from the text, representative of the content, and placing it unchanged or paraphrased on the margin from where, after successive transformations, it got back to text. The article brings to our attention the fact that an Old Polish text is a peculiar and distinct object of study, especially a multilayered one. Titles in such texts are not an independently functioning message in exclusively symbolic connection with the text, they do not have to come from the author, they may disintegrate the text or may remain with it in a relationship not only of content but also of syntax. The authors demonstrate that only the combined use of tools from many disciplines (linguistics, source studies, textology, theology) can bring us closer to getting a more precise description of the creative process which eventually results in the text.
  • MAGDALENA DERWOJEDOWA, WITOLD KIERAŚ, JOANNA BILIŃSKA, MONIKA KWIECIEŃ: The dynamics of inflection and ortography changes between the reforms 1830–1918
    In the paper the dynamics of changes in inflection and ortography is discussed. The time span is limited to the period 1830–1918. The data come from the tiny (1M tokens) corpus compiled as part of the National Research Centre funded grant „Automatic analysis of Polish texts from the period 1830–1918 with regard to the inflection and spelling” (DEC-2012/07/B/HS2/00570). Language processes suitable for verification were selected from Bajerowa’s lists. The results were reviewed with Bajerowa’s findings and then elaborated with more detailed statistical data.
  • MIROSŁAWA SIUCIAK: Error or innovation? The issue of correctness from the perspective of a language historian
    The author discusses the still current issue of classifying linguistic phenomena inconsistent with the established norm. Most frequently, publications dealing with correctness include all offences against the norm into the category of language errors, which are always valued negatively. However, they also introduce another significant category, that is, language innovation; this phenomenon is at times valued positively. Differentiating between error and innovation is neither simple nor unequivocal, and the authors of textbooks about the culture of language themselves do not take a unified stance on the problem. From a diachronic perspective, the discussion of the aforementioned phenomena is more objectified, for what we treat as innovation is any phenomenon that has permanently entered language. It does not, on the other hand, change the fact that at some point in the development of the Polish language each innovation is a language error. This is perfectly exemplified by 19th-century publications, which marked many forms as glaring mistakes that with time became an integral part of the Polish language and that from a contemporary standpoint are viewed as positive changes.
  • EWA WOŹNIAK, RAFAŁ ZARĘBSKI: The Napoleonic Code in the history of the official language in Poland – preliminary research
    The article addresses the issue of the meaning of the Napoleonic Code for the formation of the official institutional language in the period of New Polish. Factors such as separation from local legal traditions, the necessity to adapt foreign terminology, systematization of legal regulations and the requirement to produce a large number of documents all resulted in major transformations in the Polish legal terminology, in terms of official-institutional genres, and also in the style of legal texts. These are the areas of research so far neglected in the discourse of history of language. The academic research is prompted by the opinions about the role of the Napoleonic Code in the process of preservation of cultural and national identity in the period of the Partitions of Poland.
  • ALEKSANDRA WIERZBICKA: Variation of inflectional endings in the vocative of nouns with an inflectional ending -ec. A corpus-based analysis
    The article presents the results of the investigation looking at the variation of inflectional endings in vocatives of singular masculine personal nouns with derivational suffixes -ec and -owiec. The analysis was based on data derived from the “Grammatical Dictionary of the Polish Language” (edited by Z. Saloni, W. Gruszczyński, M. Woliński) and the Polish National Corpus, with the use of searching tools Poliqarp and PELCRA. The results suggest a lack of consistency between the information contained in the dictionary and the data collected by means of the corpus. Given that the current data is preliminary, additional, larger-scale studies will be needed to obtain more reliable results.
  • MARCIN WĄGIEL: Nuclear and peripheral positions with respect to the phonological interpretation of the approximants [j] and [w] in Polish
    In this paper the author focuses on the phonological interpretation of Polish approximants [j] and [w] within the framework of Axiomatic Functionalism (AF). Notions of a nuclear and peripheral position are introduced and the treatment of approximants in AF in French and Czech is reviewed. It is argued that it is both appropriate and economical to interpret [j] and [w], respectively, as allophones of /i/ and /u/ in peripheral positions. The proposal leads to the necessity of establishing a new class of phonemes, namely the class of semi-vowels, however, the total number of phonemes required to interpret Polish data is reduced which is a significant advantage of the proposed analysis.
  • JERZY GASZEWSKI: Do governed prepositions not express meaning?
    The text focuses on governed prepositions. It shows that such uses of prepositions express meaning and play a role in the construction of the meaning of utterances. The semantic minimum of these “grammatical” prepositions is the marking of semantic roles within the valency of their syntactic heads. A further confirmation of meaningfulness of the researched prepositions comes from the comparison of different government patterns and independent uses, which is not done in most of the existing analyses. Clear semantic parallels can be noted here. In some cases grammatical government is also directly linked to strict paradigmatic contrasts between prepositions which express fine-grained semantic contrasts. One can conclude that government requirements of particular lexemes are far less arbitrary than is usually assumed.
  • MAŁGORZATA ŚWIĘCICKA, MONIKA PEPLIŃSKA: Stereotypes of city dwellers of selected Polish cities: a content and axiological structure
    The authors of the present paper reconstruct a content and axiological model of stereotypes typically associated
    with Polish city-dwellers. The model relies on opinions about Polish cities – Warsaw, Poznań and Cracow – voiced by young residents of Bydgoszcz. Based on statistical data of qualitative analyses, the authors prove that the motivation for the heterostereotypes in question may be sought in extralinguistic sources: stereotypes are moulded by popular views as well as personal experiences of respondents. As the study shows, the students from Bydgoszcz, being aware of regional differences, still feel inferior to residents of big cities, and this feeling stems, for example, from economic differences, education, the quality of cultural life, etc. Moreover, apart from the region the respondents come from, social variables, without a doubt, also influence the mechanism of stereotypification. Regardless of these, the study confirms the fact that a wider understanding of the concept of stereotype, as an image of sundry fragments of reality, allows one to see it not only as a structure that is ossified and static but also one that is dynamic and changeable.


  • PIOTR ŻMIGRODZKI: The 100th anniversary of birth and the 15th anniversary of death of Prof. Franciszek Sławski
  • ZBIGNIEW BABIK: Professor Franciszek Sławski in my eyes
    The paper presents the author’s tribute to Professor Franciszek Sławski (1916–2001), the most renowned Polish researcher of Slavic and Polish vocabulary, written on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth. It includes a survey and an evaluation of his most important works (the unfinished great etymological dictionary of Polish, the comparative dictionary of Slavic languages, called “Common Slavic Dictionary” (“Słownik prasłowiański”), designed and edited by him, an attempt at a new synthesis of Common Slavic word formation, as well as assessment of their impact on the development of the respective discipline. An attempt is also made at characterizing the scientific personality of F. Sławski, without avoiding to point out some drawbacks of his methodical stance and to oppose some positions taken by him on various subjects.


  • RENATA KUCHARZYK: Definiowanie mięśni (‘defining muscles’)


  • TOMASZ MIKA: Joanna Kulwicka-Kamińska, Przekład terminologii religijnej islamu w polskich tłumaczeniach Koranu na tle biblijnej tradycji translatorycznej
  • GABRIELA DZIAMSKA-LENART: Magdalena Puda-Blokesz, Mitologizmy frazeologiczne w języku polskim (na materiale leksykografii XX i XXI w.)


  • ANNA KOSTECKA-SADOWA, EMIL POPŁAWSKI: Academic conference The status of dialect in language and culture, Krakow, September 14–15, 2015
  • MACIEJ RAK: Conference Slavic dialect phraseology, Krakow, October 3–4, 2015


  • Publishing novelties