Issue No. 1 of the Annual Volume C

GENERAL BOARD OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS OF THE POLISH LANGUAGE: 100 Years of the Society of Friends of the Polish Language


  • PIOTR ŻMIGRODZKI: The origin of Society of Friends of the Polish Language and its organizational development until 1939
    The paper, written on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Society of Friends of the Polish Language (established in Kraków in May 1920), briefly describes its origin and early years of its history. Relying mostly on the materials printed in the journal Język Polski (the press organ of the society), the author presents its constitution, structural organization, variations of the number of members and main issues and achievements in the period from 1920 till the outbreak of the Second World War. He also provides the list of the members of its administrative bodies, the list of local branches and local representatives (so-called “delegates”), who were active in several dozens of places across Poland.
  • SYLWIA PRZĘCZEK-KISIELAK: For the purity of Polish speech? Discussions on loanwords in Język Polski between 1913–1939
    The article is devoted to the analysis of the discussion on loanwords in the magazine Język Polski between 1913–1939. The author divides her views into three basic parts. In the first one she discusses the history of the Język Polski magazine between 1913–1939 and makes an abridged analysis of its contents in that period. In the second part she looks at a certain tendency in the years after regaining independence, namely eliminating foreign words from the language connected with different areas of social, economic and cultural life, such as geography, technology, chemistry, trade, craft, film, etc. which manifests itself in many articles, studies and dictionaries of Polish equivalents of loanwords, especially from German and Russian languages. Next, the author passes to the analysis of the attitude of authors and editing groups of Język Polski to foreign words, visible in 50 studies published in 24 annuals of the magazine between 1913–1939. It discusses the most important articles from the area and then observes a clear promotion of substituting the loanwords with native words, the proof of which is the number of foreign words which were offered Polish equivalents in the Język Polski magazine, already existing in the dictionaries (152) or neologisms, first of all word-formative ones (43). The latter ones became the subject of close scrutiny due to the mechanisms of creating Polonized words. However, in the conclusion of the article the author emphasizes the fact that apart from two neologisms noted in the Słownik języka polskiego by W. Doroszewski (niebotyk instead of drapacz chmur ‘skyscraper’ and życian instead of witamina ‘vitamin’) the proposals of Polonized words discussed in Język Polski did not take root at all in the language for formal and semantic reasons, a phenomenon which has also become the topic of a short analysis.
  • PIOTR WOJDAK: The -a/-u variance in gen sing. and the M2/M3 double gender – an anti-systemic “cross”
    The article draws attention to the co-occurrence of two irregular, or less systemic phenomena affecting masculine nouns: the interchangeability of the –a and –u endings in gen sing. and the M2/M3 double gender (the morphosyntactic variance in acc sing.). It presents a general description of the broadly understood –a/-u variance and the specific characteristics of the M2/M3 double gender (against the background of the category of gender and the phenomenon of gender multiplicity). In the extensive literature devoted to the genitive case, the problem of double gender is not present. It seems arguable to describe the distribution rules for both competing endings within the semantic horizon (inanimacy) rather than within the grammatical one (generic class M3), although it must be admitted that it is the double gender that speaks against the latter approach. The issues raised will be continued by the author in two successive articles in Język Polski: 1) The -a/-u variance in gen sing. and the M2/M3 double gender in the light of dictionary-driven corpus studies; 2) M2/M3 double gender noun units with the -a/-u variance in gen sing. A frequency-based modelling of the relation between endings and gender alternates.
  • MARIOLA WOŁK: Polysemy or a pretence of polysemy? Between the meaning and the usage of an expression
    The analysis focuses on the phenomenon of polysemy in the description of language. The article was inspired by the theses of Magdalena Danielewicz presented in Wieloznaczność – skaza na języku czy na jego opisie? [Polysemy – a flaw of language or its description?] (2011). The author postulates caution when determining polysemy. This is the perspective also assumed in this article, yet the problem seems to be even more complex than Danielewicz propounds. The proposed description considers eight Polish expressions, which are interesting in the discussed aspect, six nouns: kazanie, najazd, wojna, tornado, kaloryfer, akcja, and two adjectives: regularny and rasowy. The basic question is whether the possibility of at least two interpretations of these words is actually related to their meaning, that is their semantic properties, or to their usage, which means their pragmatic properties. In order to address the question the article references solutions embraced in three selected dictionaries of the Polish language (Słownik języka polskiego ed. by M. Szymczak, Inny słownik języka polskiego ed. by. M. Bańko, and Wielki słownik języka polskiego ed. by. P. Żmigrodzki), analysing authentic contexts with the examined expressions (excerpted from the National Corpus of Polish). Additionally, works which undertook similar problems are mentioned (among others, by A. Bogusławski). The scrutinised issue can be looked at from the perspective of both lexicology and lexicography.
  • ALICJA LABIJAK: Language aspects of concluding contracts, that is about the freedom of contracting in the light of linguistic theories
    The process of reaching consensus, shaping the content of the contract and subsequent interpretation of individual provisions are elements of a specific communication situation resulting in a contract. The aim of the article is to answer the following questions: does the law determine the limits of language use in the context of contract law and, if so, what is the scope of its use and what type of interpretation is applied to the contractual clauses, in particular those that give rise to interpretation doubts. The answer to this question was given on the basis of an analysis of the applicable legal regulations and the consequences that they entail. In this way, it was possible to define legally binding boundaries in which effective, linguistic shaping of the contract is possible. The article leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to reformulate the existing legal language typologies, which treat contracts only as a specialist text, because such assignment is inconsistent with the existing freedom of contracts.
  • MAGDALENA PUDA-BLOKESZ: Mythological references in Polish funeral chrematonymy – a reconnaissance
    Polish funeral chrematonyms with mythological elements are being examined here. The quantitative and qualitative survey of the subject matter, based on several criteria (among them, a genetic and cultural criterion – the origin of a mythology reference; onomastic – its type; lexical and semantic – its connotative values; functional – the function of a mythological component in a name), shows that chrematonym senders/creators most often turn to Greek vocabulary – less frequently Roman or Egyptian – to teonyms (names of deities), to mythological words which connote funeral topics and identify the range of services the company offers. In addition, now and again they choose to modify the form that a mythological component assumes (Archon instead of Charon) or to use a term which hardly connotes funeral topics (Olimp, Arkadia) or does not clarify the business profile at all (Achilles, Herkules).
  • JOANNA SZERSZUNOWICZ: Parameters of the description of realisations of the phraseological model ANIOŁ nie NNOMPERS [lit. (an) ANGEL not NNOMPERS]
    The aim of the paper is to present a description of realisations of a phraseological model through the analysis of its realisations. This issue is discussed on the example of the Polish pattern ANIOŁ nie NNOMPERS [lit. (an) ANGEL not NNOMPERS] and the units coined according to this schema. The analysis comprises three main aspects: semantic, morphosyntactic and pragmatic, each of which is subdivided into categories (semantic: literal meaning (lexical constituents, imagery); meanings of the units coined according to the analysed model; morphosyntactic: variability, syntactic functions, transformation potential; pragmatic: stylistic markedness, typical use, frequency, modification potential, cultural aspects). The findings of such analyses can be implemented in the lexicographic description of multiword units coined according to phraseological patterns.
  • GRZEGORZ SZPILA: Who proposes and who disposes: proverbs in crossword puzzles
    The article discusses the presence of proverbs in Polish crossword puzzles. The author undertakes an analysis of the rich paremic material with an eye to describing different aspects of proverb use in crossword puzzles. The quantitative and qualitative examination includes such issues as: phraseological categories, proverbial types, paremic loci, types of paremic clues and answers. The authors points out certain similaties between the use of proverbs in crosswords and other contexts. The article hopes to contribute to the examination of Polish proverbs in contemporary communication.


  • BEATA JAROSZ: Professional language of Polish journalists as a research problem. Introductory remarks
    The article focuses on the professional language of Polish press journalists, an aspect of the Polish language practically unexplored by scholars to date. The text signals selected research areas that should be of interest to linguists. The article begins with an attempt to prove the existence of such a professiolect and with a reference to several studies that preliminarily describe some of its features or elements. Subsequently the author discusses research tasks that need to be accomplished in order to describe the professiolect constituting a communication tool of Polish journalists (these tasks include the necessity of gathering empirical data, determining stages in the process of the creation of the linguistic code, characterizing internal differentiation into subvariants, establishing connections with the language of typographers, and formal-semantic analysis of individual lexical units).


  • ANNA MISZTA: Helena Krasowska, Magdalena Pokrzyńska, Lech Aleksy Suchomłynow, Świadectwo zanikającego dziedzictwa. Mowa polska na Bukowinie: Rumunia – Ukraina


  • MACIEJ RAK: Conference Slavic Dialectal Phraseology II, Kraków, October 24–25 2019


  • ALICJA PSTYGA, LUCYNA WARDA-RADYS: 60 Years of the Gdańsk Branch of the Society of Friends of the Polish Language
  • JANUSZ SIATKOWSKI: On the mysterious materials of a German language atlas from the times of World War II
  • Publishing novelties


Dofinansowano ze środków Ministra Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego pochodzących z Funduszu Promocji Kultury

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