Issue No. 2 of the Annual Volume C


  • ADAM PAWŁOWSKI, ANNA ŁACH: Information or persuasion? Titles of scientific publications in the light of empirical research
    The topic of the article is a description of the research conducted on the corpus of titles of scientific publications in the field of linguistics, published in the series “Language and Culture”. The article analyses their structure, function and persuasive effectiveness. The latter was examined taking into account the reception, measured by quantitative indicators (number of downloads from the free web service), and quantifiable structural features (level of difficulty, readability, length of elements). The purpose of the analysis was to determine whether the language structure of scientific article titles affects their readership. Research results indicate that the success of a scientific publication is primarily determined by its content and author’s prestige, and to a small extent by the title. This distinguishes the scientific communication circulation from popular circulation.
  • ALEKSANDER KIKLEWICZ: The meaning of a lexical unit and a precedent text
    The topic of this article is the processes of modification of lexical meaning due to the use of words in precedent texts (as texts of culture).The author adopted the concept of precedent texts from J.N. Karaulov, the author of the concept of cultural semantics. Therefore, three types of processes are considered: appellativization, exemplification and reinterpretation. The first process is implemented in the form of deonymization, which has various degrees of severity: one maximal in the event of loss of the proper name status, one minimal in the event of allusions and reminiscences. The exemplification of the general concepts has an impact on the addressee’s emotions and also affects the pragmatic function of the sentence. Reinterpretation consists in narrowing the lexical concept, which is additionally associated with axiological meaning of the word.
  • PIOTR WOJDAK: The -a/-u variance in gen sing. and the M2/M3 double gender in the light of dictionary-driven corpus studies
    The article presents the results of corpus research (based on the PELCRA NKJP search engine) regarding the frequency of gen. and acc. sing. forms of noun units, which, in the light of at least some contemporary Polish dictionaries, are characterized by the M2/M3 double gender, as well as the -a/-u variance in gen sing. Out of the investigated 62 units – considered with admission of formal variance and polysemy (which, however, do not affect their grammatical coherence) – 43 were positively verified both in terms of the M2/M3 double gender and the -a/-u variance in gen sing., of which: 26 – already in the balanced sub-corpus, 17 – only in the full corpus. The presentation of the results was preceded by a discussion of the ‘origin of the initial list of the double gender units with -a/-u variance and the rules for counting their frequency in NKJP. The article encourages further reflection and discussion of the issues within the wide range of corpus research methodologies, especially at the intersection of grammar and lexicology, and with particular emphasis on their connections with lexicographic sources (but also intentions). The author is aware that some of the assumptions or solutions adopted in the article (split of the corpus data source, a heterogeneous approach to polysemy) may be subject to controversy, and the semantic issues related to the examined units could not be exhausted.
  • PIOTR KRZYŻANOWSKI: Nominal uninflectedness and the system of language norms in contemporary Polish
    The article discusses the problem of nominal uninflectedness with regard to various levels of language organization: the grammar system – norm – usage. The uninflectedness of some loan nouns of untypical morphonological structures and a morphological adaptation of others may result from systemic pressure; the omission of declining of the inflectible nouns may be viewed as a liberalization of the codified norm; cases of stylistic marking of (un)inflected variants are realized at the level of the norm of usage; cases of the violation of the nominal inflectional norm are a matter of usage as such. Another context of the phenomenon of uninflectedness are the basic trends in language developments: the tendency to simplify forms, realized through a reduction of inflection, e.g. through a blockage of inflection of the nouns and the tendency to differentiate and augment salience when optional variantability is functionalized (i.e. functions are assigned to functionally empty forms, the already existing contrasts are augmented).
  • JOLANTA SZPYRA-KOZŁOWSKA: Pogodyn, pogodynek or prezenter pogody ‘weatherman’? New personal masculine nouns and linguistic mechanisms of their formation
    The subject of our analysis is an interesting, new and hitherto unexamined phenomenon in contemporary Polish of forming masculine equivalents of feminine personal nouns such as pogodynka ‘female weather forecaster,’ kosmetyczka ‘female beautician’ or niania ‘female nanny.’ Basing on Internet sources and a questionnaire study carried out among 80 female and male student participants, the paper identifies the major linguistic mechanisms employed in forming new masculine nouns, that is grammatical gender change (from feminine to masculine) of the input item (pogodynka ‘female weather forecaster’ > pogodynek ‘weatherman’), clipping of the feminine suffix –k(a) ((przedszkolanka ‘female kindergarten teacher’ > przedszkolan ‘male kindergarten teacher’) and the use of masculine personal suffixes (świetlica ‘day-care room’ > świetlic(z)arz ‘male day-care room supervisor’). Moreover, significant differences in the opinions of women and men are pointed out; the female students’ most frequent choice involves nouns derived from feminitives (niania ‘female nanny’ > nianiek/niań ‘male nanny’), whereas male students avoid such forms and suggested descriptive phrases (niania ‘female nanny’ > opiekun do dziecka ‘male child caretaker’) and suffixal nouns not derived from feminine items (przedszkole ‘kindergarten’ > przedszkolarz/przedszkolanin ‘male kindergarten teacher’).
  • RAFAŁ ZARĘBSKI: Church Slavonic and East Slavonic linguistic influences in the onymic dimension of Szymon Budny's biblical translations (based on the New Testament)
    The article discusses the scope of phonetic and morphological influences on the name-related aspect of biblical translations by Szymon Budny. The translator, who was active in the Renaissance era in the lands of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, had knowledge of the Church Slavonic and Old Belarussian languages. In his translation work, apart from many other sources, he also used translations from the area of Slavia Orthodoxa. The use of proper names in the form referring to the Church Slavonic version was a sign of the translator’s desire to bring the translation as close as possible to the original text. The use of proper names with linguistic traces of the Church Slavonic and East Slavonic also contributed to the style of translations, as it built up the local biblical tone. Budny’s isolated onymic proposals individualize his translations against the background of sixteenth-century Polish translation practice.
  • MAREK OSIEWICZ: Different Textual Scope of graphic variants in Sprawa chędoga o męce Pańskiej (codex of Wawrzyniec from Łask, 1544)
    The aim of the article is a graphic analysis of Sprawa chędoga o męce Pańskiej, an apocryph forming part of the codex of Wawrzyniec from Łasko. The analysis proves that in the scope of the most numerous apocrypha attested in the text, it attests to different frequency states, and the probable textual border between them falls between pages 42 and 42v of the codex. The collected data led to the formulation of the hypothesis that Wawrzyniec of Łask did not interfere in the graphic structure of the transcribed manuscript.
  • KRZYSZTOF MAĆKOWIAK: Lexemes naming members of the peasant state in Polish Enlightenment journalism
    The article contains reflections on the words of a hyperonymous character naming members of the peasant layer (e.g. poddany, rolnik, wieśniak, włościanin), which appeared in Polish journalistic prose of the Enlightenment period. The purpose of the text is: 1) to determine the composition of the aforementioned lexemes, 2) description of selected system features of these units, 3) to determine their text frequency. The author uses elements of semantic field theory in the analysis. The content presented in the article allows us to state that the creators of Enlightenment journalism used a surprisingly large number of lexemes with the status of hyperonyms referring to the peasantry. They were mainly individuals with a long literary tradition. In the eighteenth century, there was a fundamental reinterpretation of this material. Only some of the mentioned lexemes remained in the dictionary system (like the words chłop or rolnik). Others have fallen into disuse (as an expression of plebeusz) or changed their status (as the word gbur which became an insult).
  • IRENA JAROS: Does the nightingale sing in the chęchy?, i.e. a few words about a certain regional expression
    The subject of the paper is the lexeme chęchy referring to inaccessible wet terrain of abundant vegetation which makes passage difficult. The range of occurrence and the etymology of the lexeme have been established on the basis of linguistic data from materials on General Polish and local dialects printed and published on the internet. It is a lexeme derived from the Wielkopolska region and known to both inhabitants of large cities such as Poznań and Łódź, as well as to populations of central and western Poland. It is used in everyday language and in chrematonyms – the names of shops and products. In terms of its etymology, it is an onomatopoeic word formed in imitation of the sounds of the rustling of leaves and branches and in all probability originates from Old Slavonic. Evidence of this has been found in its connections with other Slavonic lexemes of the same root and similar meaning. Its traces are also found in toponyms – place names and hydronyms beyond the Wielkopolska region and central Poland.


  • ALICJA WITALISZ: Agnieszka Cierpich, Zapożyczenia angielskie w polszczyźnie korporacyjnej
  • PIOTR ŻMIGRODZKI: Adam Dobaczewski, Powtórzenie jako zjawisko tekstowe i systemowe. Repetycje, reduplikacje i quasi‑tautologie w języku polskim


  • A report on the activities of the Society of Friends of the Polish Language in 2019 – an abridged version.
  • Publishing novelties


Dofinansowano ze środków Ministra Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego pochodzących z Funduszu Promocji Kultury

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