Issue No. 2-3 of the Annual Volume XCI

  • Jubilee of Professor Walery Pisarek (with photo)
  • Wojciech KAJTOCH: About Professor Walery Pisarek
  • Andrzej MARKOWSKI: Language awareness in Maria Dąbrowska's Diaries (about norm formation in Polish in the first half of 20th century)
    The article describes Maria Dąbrowska’s language awareness revealed in her vast diaries. The author herself characterises the language of her works as good Polish she picked up in her family environment. She was able to justify and defend her language choices. She was critical of contemporary writers’ language as well as the language of the media. She appreciated dialects and the old Polish. Linguistic works concerning writers’ language were treated by her with reservation. She cared about the Polish language and was interested in its development. The level of her language awareness can be assessed as high.
  • Bogdan WALCZAK: Language evolution versus norm codification
  • Piotr ZBRÓG: Language norm versus codified language norm – proposal of making description objective
  • Zygmunt SALONI: What is compulsory in Polish orthography in 2010?
    The contemporary situation of Polish orthography is the inheritance of history. General rules of spelling in Polish, necessary for primary schools, were formulated with difficulty after long and passionate discussions. Between two world wars there were 11 editions of the Polish official book Pisownia polska (Polish Spelling) published by the Polish Academy of Sciences and Arts. Two new editions were issued in 1956 and 1963. The last edition, although approved by units of the Polish Academy of Sciences, was rejected by the Ministry of Education. Those events caused confusion: it is still not clear which edition is legally valid. In recent years this situation has been worsened by the resolutions of the Council for the Polish Language, trying to codify unimportant details of Polish spelling. It seemed that it would have been useful to elaborate a minimized set of rules, obligatory in official use. However, such a proposal was not accepted by official institutions and academic circles. Therefore, spontaneous development will probably determine the Polish spelling.
  • Anna PIOTROWICZ, Małgorzata WITASZEK-SAMBORSKA: Counselling language and changes in the codified norm
    The purpose of this article was to examine, how much guidance provided in the language guides from the mid-twentieth century to the present day were reflected in the linguists’ decisions of codification. The authors analyzed several linguistic innovations: inflected (tą // tę), formative (unikalny // unikatowy), syntactical (na adres // pod adresem), lexical (new meaning to the noun pasjonat) and idiomatic (the variants twardy // trudny // ciężki orzech do zgryzienia). Information on these events in 27 language guides they confronted to codified normative findings contained in the five dictionaries of correct Polish issued from 1937 to today. The fate of these innovations unfolded differently, but the analysis presented in the article shows how important it was to accept the concept of the two levels linguistic norm and how great was a role usual criterion in the evaluation new linguistic facts. In varying restrictiveness of regulatory solutions in the guides can be seen the stigma of their authors’ subjectivity, broader perspective than in dictionaries overview of the phenomena and individual style, at that these guides providing broad, diverse readers.
  • Ewa ROGOWSKA-CYBULSKA: Rules of Polish orthography in the light of questions directed to the language advice bureau
    The article displays selected problems connected with the usage of spelling principles (included in the great orthographic dictionary PWN from 2010) in terms of the rules concerning the principles of conventional Polish orthography. It discusses the examples of contradictions between rules and a dictionary, the lack of precision, the dependence on the paralinguistic knowledge, and gaps, which are especially troublesome for people who are involved in a language guidance.
  • Ewa DULNA-RAK: Attitude to codification and manifestation of language norm codification in journal Język Polski; in the years 1920-1939
    It discuss postures in article and positions, that presented regarding codification and editorial standardization of language “Język Polski” and individual researchers on columns of magazines publishing. It return note on it also, questions of readers formulated manner to that, and editorial lended that answers. Numbers of magazines “Język Polski” (1919-1939) present investigative material. It omit problems related in article with spelling (orthography) and pronunciation.
  • Malwina ŁOZIŃSKA, Urszula ZDUNEK: On the importance and role of publications about the language standards for editor's everyday work
    The aim of the essay is, firstly, to systematize the knowledge about sources of language standards, and secondly, to suggest their hierarchical order which is of the very importance for editors’ everyday work. So the authors go through the main of those sources, enlist their advantages and disadvantages and denote their discrepancies. Finally they try to formulate some postulates as to the language policy targeted at people of high linguistic selfconsciousness.
  • Helena GROCHOLA-SZCZEPANEK: Spiszu or Spisza?
    This paper’s purpose is to discuss the reason for the appearance and frequency of the two possessive variant forms of the geographic name Spisz. The alternation in possessive form usage of Spisz results from the appearance, in the eighteenth century, of the word Spiż, which was inflected to Spiżu, in contrast to Spisz, which was first inflected Spisza, then also Spiszu by analogy to Spiżu. Despite the elimination of the form Spiż in the beginning of the XX century and the return to its original name Spisz, Polish language dictionaries recommend the usage of Spiszu as the correct possessive form. However, in practice both forms of Spiszu and Spisza are used (with the dominance of the form Spisza), as the examples in the article show. The dissonance between the dictionaries’ recommendation and practice points to the need to standardize the possessive form used. The author makes several arguments, suggesting either the change of the recommended possessive form from Spiszu to Spisza or at a minimum the acceptance of both variants of Spiszu and Spisza in possessive usage.
  • Ewelina MALCHAREK-MUCHA: Wielki słownik poprawnej polszczyzny PWN as seen by users
    The author presents the results of the studies concerning the user of “Wielki słownik poprawnej polszczyzny PWN”. In the first part she presents the results of a questionnaire concerning the dictionary. Next she concentrates on the results of an experiment, in which students of Polish philology Uniwersytet Śląski took part.
  • Leszek SZYMAŃSKI: Analysis of Internet chat vocabulary
    This article describes studies on the lexis of a Polish internet chat. The analyzes were carried out with the use of corpus methodology. First, the author presents the corpus of the language used in an internet chat. Further, he delineates his reaearch on the lexis of internet chat, with the focus on: greetings, farewells, thanks, apologies, vulgarisms, foreign words and short forms.
  • Kazimierz SIKORA, Maciej RAK: New tendencies in punctuation - comma (based on the Internet usage)
    The aim of this article was to present an introductory analysis of punctuation used in the Internet and confront it with the norm upheld by style guides. The thesis successfully defended by this article is the following: punctuation of the Internet text inclines towards intonation and rhetorics order (pausing pattern). One can see an analogy with old-Polish punctuation, even more so as the Internet texts are determined by the oral aspect of Polish. The examples analyzed consitute excerpts from popular message boards.
  • Kinga ZAWODZIŃSKA-BUKOWIEC: Merchants' pseudonyms versus companies' names
    In the field of research interests some merchants’ pseudonyms from the interwar times found their place. Besides pseudonyms, the names of shops and service shops were described- both from the turn of 19th and 20th century and also the contemporary ones. Issues connected with a merchant pseudonym were examined on two levels: antroponimical and chrematonimical. Civil Code and Commercial Code played an important role, too. In my article a historical background of a merchant pseudonym was presented. Categorization of pseudonyms and companies’ names from the old days to the contemporary ones was also done. The research results enabled introduction of the draft showing the development of examined trade names. The presented research material led to advancing the thesis that the interwar merchant pseudonym could be the ancestor of contemporary trade names.
  • Izabela NOWAK: Lexical regionalisms of Pilzno against the regionalisms of Cracow
    The aim of this study is to establish whether the regionalisms typical for Cracow occur also in Pilzno (small town located in the south-west part of the Pokarpackie Voivodship, between the towns Tarnów and Dębica) and whether there are any differences. This article has been written on basis of the master’s thesis under the title Lexical regionalisms in the language of Pilzno inhabitants. 15 inhabitants of Pilzno having higher and secondary education and belonging to three age groups were subject of the research. The research material was obtained using the questionnaire method. For the purpose of this article, 69 Cracow regionalisms have been chosen which belonged to different topical domains and which were established on basis of the works by K. Nitsch, J. Kowalikowa, B. Dunaj, and M. Mycawka and confronted with the research results obtained in Pilzno. The collected examples have demonstrated that in the language of the inhabitants of Pilzno dominated overwhelmingly the forms regarded as the Cracow regionalisms. The conformity of the regionalisms in Pilzno and in Cracow is estimated to be about 95%.


  • Witold MAŃCZAK: More about the fashion for diminutives


  • Natalia Chobzej, Ksenia Simowycz, Tetiana Jastrems’ka, Hanna Dydyk-Meusz, Leksykon lwiws’kyj: poważno i na żart (by Anna KOSTECKA-SADOWA)
  • Julia Legomska: PAŃSTWO, NARÓD, OJCZYZNA w dawnej polszczyźnie. Leksykalno-semantyczny opis pojęć (by Bożena SIERADZKA-BAZIUR)
  • Maria Steffen-Batogowa, Tadeusz Batóg: Słownik homofonów polskich (by Piotr ŻMIGRODZKI)


  • Bożena TARAS: Report about session “Słowa prawdy i życia Karola Wojtyły – Jana Pawła II”
  • Adam PRZEPIÓRKOWSKI: Polish Linguistic List
  • Publishing novelties
  • Report about activity of the Society of Friends of the Polish Language in 2010 (abbreviation)