Issue No. 3 of the Annual Volume XCIV

  • P. DĘBOWIAK: About Professor Witold Mańczak's scientific oeuvre on the occasion of his 90th birthday anniversary
    The paper presents an outline of Witold Mańczak’s scientific oeuvre documented by nearly one thousand bibliographic entries. Several chosen theorems, defended by Cracovian linguist in his work, are discussed.
  • M. RYCHŁO: The traces of Grimm's Law in Polish-English cognates: PIE *p > PGmc *f
    Grimm’s Law is a sound change which caused considerable divergence between Germanic and other Indo-European languages, and consequently, is responsible for certain sound differences between modern Polish and modern English. The text of the present paper concentrates on the fragment of Grimm’s Law describing the change of PIE *p > PGmc *f and presents the traces of this change which are preserved in Polish-English cognates. Each example is accompanied by the forms in Gothic and Old Church Slavonic and, if these are unattested, in other closely related languages as well as the Proto-Slavic, Proto-Germanic and Proto-Indo-European reconstructions. The paper reports on the first part of the research and focuses on the cognates which descended from common etymons of identical phonological and morphological structure.
  • K. WYRWAS: Verbs describing storytelling in Indo-European languages. An attempt to reconstruct the linguistic picture of storytelling
    The article is an attempt to reconstruct the linguistic picture of storytelling on the basis of etymology of contemporary verbs in Indo-European languages. Dictionary data were used to describe conceptualizations accompanying verbs such as Latin narrare along with the derived Roman verbs, Polish opowiadać and other Slavic verbs with a common linguistic ancestor, Russian and forms related to it in East and South Slavic languages, as well as Germanic verbs, such as German erzählen and English to tell. Analyses have shown that in each language group it was a different linguistic feature of storytelling that was dominating in the process of name creation: transfer of knowledge, being an eyewitness, telling the truth and preserving the sequence of events.
  • E. ROGOWSKA-CYBULSKA: The motivation of foreign words in the folk etymologies of Polish toponyms
    The article is concerned with folk etymologies (in other words: associative, unscientific, colloquial, synchronized, pseudoetymologies, etymological reinterpretations) of Polish toponyms, in which a foreign word is the secondary etymon. The author presents, on the basis of selected examples, a few subtypes of such pseudoetymologies as: etymologies created in areas varied ethnically (e.g. Bytów, Chojnice), etymologies referring to the prestige of Latin (e.g. Kościerzyna, Donabrów), etymologies referring to the knowledge of local history enthusiasts (e.g. Strabla), erudite etymologies created as a result of dictionary search (e.g. Łomża), the distortion of scientific etymologies (e.g. Warszawa), foreign reinterpretations of Polish toponyms (e.g. Warsaw).
  • K. MAĆKOWIAK: On the literary career of the lexeme włościanin (peasant) in the age of Enlightenment
    The author tries to: 1) determine the frequency and scope of occurrence of the lexeme peasant in the second half of the 18th century and the first decades of the following century; 2) explain the reasons for such repartition of the word in the given period. Moreover, the text includes information about other names of village inhabitants living in the state of economic and political dependence, which were in use in the age of Enlightenment. The word peasant was a new element in the 18th century Polish. It gained full literary rights only after the period of partitions of Poland. The advancement of the lexeme took place to a large extent thanks to the practice of authors of utilitarian writings (official and journalistic). Its success was determined mainly by the texts of the Enlightenment reformers. The influence of this environment caused a rapid increase in the acceptance of the used language. This process also referred to the analyzed word. In the consciousness of Polish people at the turn of the 18th and 19th century, the word peasant was a catalyst of progressive contents and positive emotions.
  • E. SIATKOWSKA: Matka, matrona, dama three images of an estimable woman in a diachronic approach
    Among Polish names of women which hold the highest rank in the value system are those denoting mother, as well as heroine, the religious martyress, and the relatively recent diva, among others. The name matrona (matron) derives from the Latin mater. It has occurred since the early Middle Ages in Latin texts found on Polish territories, from which it has been incorporated into the Polish language. The word had its moment of fame in the Romantic period. Nowadays, it is almost out of use. Dama (lady) stems from the Latin domina, a word which had found its place in many European languages, mostly as a honorific title. It had been reformulated and shortened in Latin; then in some Romance languages it took the form similar to donna. It was probably transferred into Polish from the French dame in the 17th century. It continues to be widely used at present, most significantly so in the phrase denoting the first lady (the equivalent of the Italian prima donna). Matrona is a word which represents moral values, while lady connotes representative and social ones.
    The paper provides information about the grant project titled „Treasury of the Old Polish Lexis” directed by Ewa Deptuchowa in the Institute of Polish Language of the Polish Academy of Sciences in years 2009-2012. Contractors in the project: L. Szelachowska-Winiarzowa, Z. Wanicowa, F. Wysocka, W. Twardzik i M. Frodyma worked on selected semantic categories (natural sciences, legal, religious vocabulary) and on syntactical function of synsemantic words and on interpretations of contexts from Latin manuscripts that include Polish glosses. After presentation of goals of the project, of the methodology of their accomplishment and of the results by Ewa Deptuchowa, individual participants provide descriptions of major issues in the realized project tasks. M. Frodyma presents words in the field of religion and theology, which were noted for the first time and those that were known from the Old Polish Dictionary, but were characterized by new phonetical variants or new inflexion forms, meanings, idioms and proofs older from registered in the Old Polish Dictionary. L. Szelachowska-Winiarzowa, who is specializing in natural sciences names, describes the methodology to establish correct forms of dictionary articles and meanings of several among many words. Z. Wanicowa introduces the methodology of working on the material in the field of legal language, highlighting a large number of hapax legomena and borrowings, especially from German. F. Wysocka writes about the difficulties of the work of a palaeographist and meanings of the correct interpretation of Polish glosses in Latin manuscripts. Some of the presented examples have been illustrated with photographs of the manuscripts.
  • J. BOBROWSKI: Old Polish courtesy titles in Stanisław Wyspiański's dramas
    The article is concerned with Old Polish courtesy titles which occur in Stanisław Wyspiański’s dramas. They are found in ten out of thirty two works of the writer. The conducted analyses have proved that the writer recreated carefully the sociolinguistic rules concerning the use of courtesy titles in his texts. He also introduced the old expressions of addressing others mainly in historical texts in order to obtain archaic stylization of the characters’ expressions. However, they also occur in contemporary dramas in which they are used as allusive references to the Polish aristocratic culture.
  • L. SZELACHOWSKA-WINIARZOWA: What does Old Polish owe to king Władysław Jagiełło?
    The authoress explains, listed in transliteration in the Słownik staropolski, the unreadable entry ! Loszyna. This record, coming from the royal bills of the year 1394, should be read Łoszyna. The word was borrowed from the Lithuanian language, a unique borrowing from this language recorded in the lexical material of the Słownik staropolski (Old Polish Dictionary).


  • P. WOJDAK, Wielorodzajowość wśród rzeczowników współczesnej polszczyzny, przez P. ŻMIGRODZKI
  • M. LEŃCZUK, Staropolskie przekazy kanonu Mszy Świętej. Wariantywność leksykalna, przez K. BOROWIEC