Issue No. 3 of the Annual Volume C


  • SEBASTIAN PRZYBYSZEWSKI: On the use of general quantification operators in negative sentences
    In the article, the issue of Polish sentences with general quantifiers in the noun phrase and predicates (both verbs and multi-word expressions) containing the negating lexeme nie is discussed. The author points out that the combinations of the type wszyscy nie (all not), e.g. Wszyscy nie słodzili kawy (All didn’t add suger to tea) may be interpreted as particular affirmative propositions, i.e. in the same way as nie wszyscy (not all) strings. On the basis of relations between Polish verbal units and general quantification operators, three groups are indicated: the first group of predicates can be used with operators of the type wszyscy (all) and żaden (none), the second only with żaden, and the third only with wszyscy.
  • ADAM DOBACZEWSKI: Paratactemes vs asyntagmatic units. The different faces of textual co-occurrence
    The paper concentrates on the status of the so-called paratactemes (see J. Wajszczuk O metatekście 2005), considering their different levels of prosodic independence. Our main claim concerns the need to distinguish paratactemic units being able to freely co-occur with other expressions within one prosodic unit from lexemes which need to be prosodically independent (i.e., from independent lexemes, which correspond to asyntagmatic units as understood by R. Laskowski). Until now, J. Wajszczuk and her followers have only seen the possibility of functioning as independent prosodic units to be the characteristic feature of particles, questioning the need to distinguish a separate class of asyntagmatic units (or, especially, a class of contextual asyntagmatic lexemes). The article points out to the problem of significant heterogeneity of such set of “particles”. Certain units classified as particles may not be freely added to other elements of syntactic links without disturbing the intonation structure of the phonological phrase. Our efforts, aiming at describing the prosodic features of different co-occurrence units which include a particle and the expression serving as its denotation, have led to a classification proposal including the following options: 1) co-occurring within one phonological phrase (intraphrase co-occurrence, KWF), 2) co-occurring as part of two phrases within one utterance (interphrase co-occurrence, KMF), and 3) occurring in different utterances (inter-utterance co-occurrence, KMW).
  • PIOTR WOJDAK: M2/M3 double gender noun units with the -a/-u variance in GEN sing. A frequency-based modelling of the relation between endings and gender alternates
    In the dictionaries that list M2/M3 double gender noun units (with the morphosyntactic variance in ACC sing.), the variance of the endings -a/-u in GEN sing. is usually recorded synthetically, i.e. without their gender (M2 or M3) specification. In the genitive, there is essentially no syntactic distinction between M2 and M3 nouns, and only one of the endings – -u – is limited to one gender (M3). Still, the article presents various possibilities of qualification of the -a ending in GEN sing. within M2/M3 double gender noun units:

    1. assigning it always (regardless of the frequency data) only to the M3 alternate
    2. assigning it always to both alternates (frequency data only determines which of the two endings is dominant for M3)
    3. assigning it – individually (based on the frequency data) – to one (only M2) or both alternates (also M3) of a double gender unit, with the assumption that the ratio of generic frequency in GEN sing. is:
      1. 3.1. either balanced (the same for all units);
      2. 3.2. or proportional to the “real” (quantifiable) ratio of generic frequency in ACC sing.

    A formal model was proposed for interpreting the relation between endings and types according to 3.1 and 3.2. The model was applied to the set of 43 noun units with the -a/-u variance, confirmed (and calculated) by the corpus, as well as with the M2/M3 double gender (in the light of ACC sing.).

  • KRZYSZTOF JASKUŁA, JOLANTA SZPYRA-KOZŁOWSKA: Wychódźc, Pcim and Rzgów. Consonant clusters in place names in the light of Polish phonotactics
    The paper undertakes an interesting and largely under-researched issue of initial and final consonant clusters in many Polish place names which are either unattested in common words or occur only in isolated cases, as illustrated by the examples provided in the title. The presentation of the relevant language data is followed by a brief description of the historical sources of such clusters which involve sound changes (e.g. disappearance of weak vowels, palatalization and segment metathesis), as well as borrowings from other languages and local dialects. Next, the discussion focuses on the place the names in question should occupy in the Polish phonotactic system. The authors argue that equating phonotactic well-formedness with structures attested in language and ill-formedness with those which are unattested is too simplistic. A solid analysis of the aforementioned issues requires a substantial modification and introduction of several subtler distinctions. They claim, therefore, that phonotactic restrictions form a scale, with well-formed and ill-formed sound sequences appearing at its extremities and with rare consonant clusters and those found only in place names and some borrowings located in the middle.
  • AGNIESZKA PIELA: The troublesome chronological status labels in the dictionaries of the Polish language
    The subject of the article constitutes a survey of the techniques of labelling the lexical resources which are chronologically marked in early and contemporary general-purpose and phraseological dictionaries (dictionaries of collocations) of the Polish language. Despite a tradition which spans some centuries (starting from the 17th century), the system of the chronological labelling of language units is quite inconsistent. Lexica feature various types of indication of archaic/anachronic nature of words and lexical combinations, cf. inter alia non-literal status labels (*), literal status labels (which appear in an abbreviated form, e.g.: arch., daw., przestarz., histor., rec. or in a non-abbreviated form, e.g.: dawny, wychodzący z użycia), information about the antiquity of words contained in the definitions of headwords (e.g.: w dawnej Polsce [in early Poland], w starożytności [in antiquity]). The chronological marking of words is also indicated by other status labels, i.e. the frequency-related label (rzad.) and the style and usage labels (książk., podn.). The article demonstrates the fundamental problems associated with the evaluation of the extent of the currency of dictionary units.
  • BEATA ZIAJKA: Folk belief stories – problems and research opportunities
    The objective of the article is to discuss the problems and opportunities resulting from the adoption of folk stories related to various beliefs as the research basis. A low axiological status of folk beliefs results in research difficulties already at the level of field explorations. The article presents both the reasons for those difficulties and the research strategies applied by the researcher in order to reactivate a belief story. Paradoxically, the same factors that determine the difficulties related to collecting the story, open new research perspectives related to the level of the pragmalinguistic analysis of the collected texts. It is because folk belief stories include a clear pragmatic layer consisting of the narrator’s comments that reveal his/her attitude towards the beliefs.
  • RENATA KUCHARZYK: The semantic development of the words premiera and premierowy in the contemporary Polish language
    The subject of the article is the semantic development of the words premiera and premierowy. Most dictionaries of the Polish language note only one meaning of the lexeme premiera: ‘the first performance of a dramatic work; also: the first screening of a new film’. Premierowy is defined as an ‘adjective from the premiere’. It turns out, however, that in the contemporary Polish language these two words function in new meanings. Premiera is sometimes used to name any activities and things performed for the first time. The word also has an objective meaning: ‘object first shown publicly or put up for sale; novelty’. Premierowy is, inter alia ‘occupying in a certain order or place a position that can be described using the number 1; first’, ‘the best, the most important, superior to others in some way’, ‘one that has recently been created; new’, ‘the one that replaces something previously fulfilling a given function; new’. The semantic development of these lexemes is probably the result of the influence of English, but semantic changes in Polish are also possible.
  • JAKUB BOBROWSKI: The history of the lexeme badylarz (in connection with works on the PAS Great Dictionary of Polish)
    The article explores the semantic and pragmatic evolution of the lexical unit badylarz (‘vegetable gardener’). The author challenges the generally accepted opinions about its history, making use of data from dictionaries, digital libraries and corpora of the Polish language. It is commonly believed that the word came into existence during the PRL era and belonged to the typical elements of the discourse of communist propaganda. An analysis of the collected data showed that the word badylarz existed as far back as the second half of the 19th century. Originally, it was a neutral lexeme, but in the interwar period it became one of the offensive names of class enemies, often used in left-wing newspapers. After the war, negative connotations of the word were disseminated through literature and popular culture. Nowadays, badylarz functions as the lexical exponent of cultural memory of communist times.
  • EWA MŁYNARCZYK: The word gildia in old and contemporary Polish
    The paper is dedicated to a close analysis of the semantic development of the lexeme gildia. The author considered etymological data, lexicographic information (from historical and contemporary general dictionaries), as well as textual data (from the corpus and the Internet). From the etymological perspective, the lexeme gildia is derived from the same source as giełda, but the words were dissimilated and functioned as separate units. Lexicographic data indicate that the word giełda is used in general Polish in a few meanings, while the word gildia – as ‘merchants’ association’ and ‘merchants’ class’ and is contemporarily regarded as a historicism, however, it is still present in new contexts. It is used as a component of proper names from the field of social chrematonymy (in names of associations) and marketing chrematonymy (in names of companies). Moreover, the lexeme gildia acquires a new additional meaning in specialist vocabulary of computer players. The development of the word discussed is an example of broader trends which are visible in the lexis of contemporary Polish.
  • JADWIGA STĘPNIK-SZEPTYŃSKA, RAFAŁ SZEPTYŃSKI: Chronologisation of Polish vocabulary – contemporary practice
    The aim of this article is to verify the effectiveness of the procedures intended for establishing the earliest attestations of particular words within the history of the Polish language that have been adopted during the work on Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN (PAS Great Dictionary of Polish). On the basis of 102 words, previously dated by J. Wawrzyńczyk, we demonstrate that the solutions elaborated bring satisfying results. Additionally, we comment on the usefulness of particular sources and tools and propose how to improve one of the procedures at the technical level.


  • PIOTR ŻMIGRODZKI: Professor Bogusław Dunaj Celebrates 80th Anniversary.


  • KATARZYNA GRYCH, SEBASTIAN WIELOSZ: Joanna Hryniewska, Substytucje nazwisk Polaków w języku chińskim
  • WALDEMAR CZACHUR: Maria Wojtak, Wprowadzenie do genologii


  • JAN WAWRZYŃCZYK: Notes of a rechronologist: outsider
  • PIOTR ŻMIGRODZKI: A review of rechronologisation. Replying to Jan Wawrzyńczyk.
  • Publishing novelties


Dofinansowano ze środków Ministra Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego pochodzących z Funduszu Promocji Kultury

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