Issue No. 4 of the Annual Volume XCIV

  • M. BUŁAWA: Comparatives gorszy and gorzej as indicators of intensification in general Polish and dialects
    In the article the author analyzes the use of comparative forms of evaluative units zły, źle (and their corresponding superlatives) where they function as indicators of intensification. In general Polish the comparatives gorszy and gorzej in the role discussed refer to objects evaluated negatively and maintain their connection with evaluative comparison the expression of which is their primary function. In dialects we can observe a more advanced semantic development of the adverb gorzej – there connections have been noted in which it carries a solely quantitative meaning while it ceases to express evaluation. Use of the comparative gorszy in the sense of more is only to be found in dialects. This specific meaning is encountered in syntactic structures unknown to the contemporary general Polish language and is used to form descriptive comparative adjectives which identify the qualities evaluated negatively.
  • A. WITORSKA: What is a tiret?
    Regulation of the Prime Minister on June 20th, 2002 on the „Principle of the Legislative Technique” (Journal of Laws No. 100, item. 908) introduced the tiret as a part of a letter column in a listing. The tiret, as defined in the Uniwersalny słownik język polskiego (with the qualifier: printing), is a graphic sign in the shape of a short, horizontal line that is used when connecting compound words, double names, etc., or the hyphenation of words to the next line; hyphen, a hyphenation sign. The author presents examples of using the tiret on the basis of official gazettes and other legal documents and analyses what the tiret is. She explains the legal meaning and introduces a definition proposition and grammar description of this lexem in a dictionary.
  • M. WOŁK: About the word jedyny (only) and its negated form
    The article centres on the word jedyny (only) and its negated form, i.e. an expression nie jedyny or niejedyny (not the only one). Orthographical dictionaries published by PWN explicitly determine the issue of their spelling as late as in the 2003 editions. According to the latest recommendations, spelling the negated form as one word is correct. Since the discussed matter goes beyond mere correctness, the functional as well as grammatical status of the word was analysed, together with its selectional restrictions, which are always related to the semantic level of a given linguistic unit.
  • M. RUSZKOWSKI: Evolution of the linguistic standard (illustrated with an example of variant forms contained in Artur Passendorfer's Concise Dictionary of Language Errors)
    To show the evolution of the linguistic standard, variant forms contained in A. Passendorfer’s Concise Dictionary of Language Errors and major grammar rules (published in 1904) were compared with normative determinations offered by PWN Great Dictionary of the Polish Language Usage ed. by A. Markowski (published in 2004). 100 years passed between the two publications. If any form was missing in the Great Dictionary of the Polish Language Usage, it was compared with a relevant entry in the Universal Dictionary of the Polish Language ed. by S. Dubisz (published in 2003). When comparing the variants in the two dictionaries, one can observe irregular evolution of the linguistic standard. After 100 years, some forms are assessed likewise in terms of the linguistic standard, while others are considered incorrect, are not recorded at all or had different usage labels (expressive, colloquial, dated, rare). Finally, there are some variants A. Passendorfer assumed rare, and the two contemporary dictionaries – as equal. The observations made in the research show how difficult and risky it is to predict the development of linguistic forms and their assessment in terms of the linguistic standard.
  • P. GAJDA: Conventionality of contemporary stage songs. A syntactic and stylistic analysis
    In the article Paulina Gajda presents some linguistic phenomena which prove the conventionality of contemporary stage songs. She also analyses some attempts to break with the convention. However, her starting point is the description of the stylistics of contemporary stage songs. The author’s attention is especially focused on syntactic structures formed by the most frequently used constituents as well as syntactic productivity of lexemes in two-part collocations.
  • A. NIEPYTALSKA-OSIECKA: About the words fejk, lajk and hejt in Internet Polish
    The article discusses the derivational productivity of the words: hejt, fejk and lajk. These words – which were originally English – found their way into colloquial Polish via the Internet. After being adapted to the Polish spelling and inflectional systems, a series of derivatives were created for these words and these are, among others: hejtować, shejtować, hejter, hejterstwo, fejkować, sfejkować, lajkować, zalajkować, odlajkować, lajker. Discussing the structure and uses of derivational formations derived from hejt, fejk and lajk is the main purpose of this article. All discussed derivatives are illustrated with quotations from diverse Internet sources.
  • A. PIELA: Unstable phrasemes with old names of clothes
    While considering the terminology connected with contemporary and past fashions, there is a tendency to highlight a specific feature of the clothing lexis which is its evanescence and instability. It turns out that not only the clothing terminology is unstable in the Polish language. Also the phrasemes with components relating to historical names of garments or the ones containing the names of old clothes after a semantic modification are characterized by the same phenomenon of instability. My article deals with the vicissitudes of these types of combinations in the Polish language.
  • E. DEPTUCHOWA: Professor Wacław Twardzik (27 X 1937–25 IV 2014)


  • R. KUCHARZYK: On a certain neologism in colloquial Polish (zanabyć)
  • P. ZBRÓG: Serwer dedykowany, akumulator dedykowany
  • J. MIODEK: We love serials!


  • A. ZIELIŃSKA, Mowa pogranicza. Studium o językach i tożsamościach w regionie lubuskim, by B. ZIAJKA
  • A. SIWIEC, Nazwy własne obiektów handlowo-usługowych w przestrzeni miasta, by M. FAMIELEC


  • K. DERMANOWSKI: International Academic Conference „A word from the perspective of a linguist and translator. Polish in translated texts”

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