Issue No. 4 of the Annual Volume XCV

  • Jubilee of Professor Maria Karpluk (with a photo)
  • M. ZABAWA: On the difficulties in analysing semantic borrowings and calques
    The aim of the present paper is to describe the problems connected with the analysis of English semantic borrowings and calques functioning in Polish. Among others, the problems connected with distinguishing between (1) semantic borrowings and native semantic innovations, (2) calques and native phraseological innovations and (3) English semantic borrowings and English calques are discussed. Certain criteria, which might be useful in such differentiation, are also presented: they include the lexicographical criterion, corpus analysis, semantic criterion, the criterion of analogy, the criterion connected with cultural issues and the criterion of the text source.
  • R. VON WALDENFELS: A not completely (im)perfective verb: dać się in modal use
    The article deals with the semantics and aspectual characteristics of modal constructions formed with dać give, let in combination with the reflexive particle się. In Polish today, this construction appears in two varieties: in the first, diachronically older variant, the notional object is coded as a subject, while the second, younger variant is impersonal in the sense that it does not contain a subject. This second variant became current only in the 20th century and is more grammaticalized than its older sibling in several respects. Notably, it is not unanimously perfective, but shares many, but not all, characteristics of an imperfective verb, thereby exhibiting traits of a transitional aspectual status.
  • Z. SALONI: Phonological transcription of Polish texts in university teaching
    The aim of the paper is to show that traditional phonetic and phonological transcription of Polish texts remains under the influence of the system of writing. It uses special symbols for sounds or phonemes but keeps the orthographic segmentation into words and does not take into consideration the stress (which sometimes differentiates the meaning). The transcription of a Polish text with marked stressed syllables and without division into orthographic words would be much more empirically adequate and didactically useful.
  • M. RUSZKOWSKI: An attempt at statistical verification of Behaghel's linguistic law
    In 1909, in reliance of linguistic material coming from a few dozens of world’s languages, Otto Behaghel formulated a law which he called the law of increasing terms. It says that an order of constituents in fixed phrases containing equal elements is subject to a certain regularity, the shorter constituent precedes the longer one in general (their length is determined by the number of syllables). Quantitative verification of the law involves comparison of the frequency ratio between equal variant structures in which the two constituents of a different length (measured in syllables) are inverted, e.g. ból i cierpienie (pain and suffering) – cierpienie i ból, ład i porządek (law and order) – porządek i ład, sacrum i profanum (the sacred and the profane) – profanum i sacrum, treć i forma (form and content) – forma i treć. Calculations were made based on the material excerpted from the National Corpus of Polish. All the sixteen pairs of combinations show the prevailing word order: a shorter noun – a longer noun. The effect of Behaghel’s law on linear arrangements of constituents is in all likelihood a result of euphonic reasons – structures with a shorter element going first are easier to pronounce and can be remembered easier, as felt by the Polish language users.
  • M. KASZEWSKI: The problem of redundant derivation in the 16th century Polish language conceptual category of nomina instrumenti
    The main subject of consideration in this paper is the problem of classifying a large number of 16th century Polish derivatives representing the conceptual category of nomina instrumenti. The analysis revealed that during this period many of these words, formed with affixal -k-, were derivatives representing only the tautological function of the suffix. There is another problem to discuss – how to distinguish between diachronic expressive-diminutive and structural affixal functions.
  • Z. KRÓTKI: Old Polish expressivisms derived from chełpić się, chlubić się, chwalić się
    The article deals with the varied formations of expressivisms stemming from chełpić się, chwalić się, chlubić się. The written material containing 57 word-forms was excerpted from all available lexicographical sources recording historical vocabulary. It was presented in the form of a word formation nest. The purpose of the analysis was to show the inner structure of interconnectedness and the motivating factors between the centers of nests (chełpić się, chwalić się, chlubić się) and the group of words with a different background. In the article the most important combinatory tendencies typical of the Polish language in previous centuries were indicated. The representation of the patterns of the togetherness of suffixes” allowed to track the way of evolution of word formation. The patterns mentioned above made it also possible to show the most important transformations.
  • M. SZYMAŃSKA: Regionalisms and linguistic variants – distinction in literature and in the minds of speakers
    The article compares and contrasts the following definitions: regionalizm językowy (linguistic regionalism), dialektyzm (item of a dialect) and gwaryzm, which were taken from scientific studies and analyses how they are related, paying attention to the sociolinguistic aspect of this term. Then the article presents some conclusions from the analysis of the survey, which examines how the concept of linguistic regionalism functions in the consciousness of language speakers. The final section presents the opinions of linguists regarding the future of regionalisms in language, and confronts them with predictions which were formulated decades ago and which still require verification.


  • R. KUCHARZYK: Nurkowanie (‘diving’) on the pitch


  • K. KUSZAK, Świat związków frazeologicznych w języku dziecka. Inspiracje teoretyczne – badania – implikacje praktyczne, przez K. PARDEJ
  • A. CEGIEŁA, Słowa i ludzie. Wprowadzenie do etyki słowa, przez M. KACZOR
  • Praktyczny przewodnik po korpusach języków słowiańskich, pod redakcją M. HEBAL-JEZIERSKIEJ, przez A. WIERZBICKĄ
  • M. OLMA, Językowo-kulturowy obraz artystycznej rodziny polskiej drugiej połowy XIX wieku (na podstawie korespondencji familijnej Heleny i Mieczysława Pawlikowskich), przez B. WALCZAKA


  • D. ROJSZCZAK-ROBIŃSKA: A report from the academic conference How to study Old Polish texts’ from the series Old Polish Language Meetings
  • S. IGLEWSKA: An all-Poland academic conference Language– office – law’, Bydgoszcz October 9–10, 2014
  • K. SIKORA: Krakow Spelling Test I
  • E. BIŁAS-PLESZAK: Mother Language Festival in Katowice