Issue No. 4 of the Annual Volume XCVI


  • ANDRZEJ MARKOWSKI: Twenty years of the Council for the Polish Language at the Presidium of the Polish Academy of Sciences
    The article presents the accomplishments of the Council for the Polish Language at the Presidium of the Polish Academy of Sciences during its twenty years of existence. The most important people in the Council’s history are portrayed, together with essential facts about this institution. An overview is provided of the most significant areas of activities, such as the organization of the Forum on the Culture of the Word, book publishing, cooperation with the international organization EFNIL, the training of European Union translators, cooperation with major state authorities and institutions. The daily activities of the Council are also described (e.g. extensive correspondence carried out with institutions and individuals). The article concludes with a reflection on the role of the Council in developing policies on the modern usage of the Polish language.
  • STANISŁAW KOZIARA: Biblia Tysiąclecia in relation to the tradition of biblical Polish language – anniversary remarks
    The article is an attempt at a synthetic perception of chosen aspects of the language used in the first Catholic translation of the whole Bible from original languages into Polish, published half a century ago, which is traditionally called Biblia Tysiąclecia. This translation assumed the role of an official text in the Polish Church after the 16th century Biblia Wujka. The first part of the paper concentrates on the most important facts connected with the origin, history and previous reception of this translation. The most significant part of the article contains an attempt at assessing the linguistic aspect of Biblia Tysiąclecia in terms of its reference to traditional features of Polish biblical style, which includes mainly lexical, phraseological and syntactic biblisms. Conclusions resulting from these assessments and analyses made it possible to determine the features of language and style used in Biblia Tysiąclecia, as well as to indicate its position and significance in the history and tradition of biblical Polish language.
  • WŁADYSŁAW T. MIODUNKA: Polish language spoken by youth of non-Polish origin in Poland in the light of changes in the understanding of multiculturalism and multilingualism
    In the first part of the article the author discusses the changes in the understanding of multiculturalism that have been taking place in Poland for more than 20 years. These changes can be reduced to saying that Polish culture has been changing from the national and centralized one to the multicentric and regionalized one. It is neccesary to remember that multiculturalism has existed in Polish society for many centuries, and now, as a stable element, it is becoming a visible part of this society’s collective subconscious. As a result, the
    phenomenon of multiculturalism is seen as a driving force of the transformation of Polish society from the apparent homogeneity to the increased diversity.
    The second part of the article is dedicated to educational changes in Poland in the field of teaching Polish language to children from national and ethnic minorities, to migrants, repatriates and refugees. These changes are shown in the context of the process of teaching Polish language to people of non-Polish origin as well as of the process of certification of knowledge of Polish language, which started in 2004, the year of Poland’s accession to the European Union.
  • EWA RUDNICKA: Dictionary as a text of culture
    The subject of the article are Polish national dictionaries and cultural factors associated with their preparation and functioning. The aim of the discussion is to demonstrate clearly that the dictionary is not only a tool for documentation and information on the language, but also a kind of repository of collective experiences of the community. The author examines the definitions of the text culture, and argues that the dictionary can be included in this category. Therefore, she calls for studying and interpreting dictionaries in the same way as we do with the typical texts of culture.
  • ALICJA WITALISZ: Rozporekgate and oscypekgate, biznesowy and casualowy: English-Polish hybrids in contemporary Polish
    The article aims to discuss several types of hybrid formations and (re)define the very notion of hybrid, which often appears in studies on language contact but happens to be variously interpreted. The research material used in the study illustrates the need to differentiate between the following categories: loanblends, hybrid creations, adapted loanwords and derivatives. This division is justified by the need to set apart direct outcomes of language contact from formations that do not have direct foreign etymons. The article sets a clear borderline between the categories in question and amply illustrates them with English-Polish language material.
  • NATALIA ZEMLANAJA: Can anything really happen? Syntactic-semantic analysis of the verb zdarzyć się
    The number of meanings of the verb zdarzyć się ranges from one to three in different dictionaries of Polish language, the definitions of meanings, in turn, often include errors. The objective of the author’s article is to carry out afresh linguistic analysis of the mentioned verb. During the research the methods of semantic analysis were used, the most important of them being the method of formulating the hypotheses and their verification using a contradiction test. Two forms – zdarzyło się coś and zdarzyło się, że_ – were distinguished and they were considered as alternative variants of the same unit of language. No semantic difference was noticed between these two forms, only the formal difference between them was indicated. The paper also proposes a project of explication of the meaning of the language unit zdarzyło się coś (zdarzyło się, że_).
  • MARIOLA WOŁK: Caught in the stream of speech. On the status and functioning of powiem ci, że_ (‘I will tell you that _’) in the spoken Polish
    The article presents a description of a common phrase which occurs in private, colloquial conversations. It most commonly functions in utterances as a sequence, yet this is not the only shape it assumes – the rightside singular pronoun can be replaced with an addressee-related expressions, e.g. powiem wam, że_, powiem panu / pani, że_ (‘I’ll tell you that_’ when you can denote both a second person plural pronoun as well as a polite third person singular pronoun with Ms/Mr as the addressee), etc. The presented discussion aims at establishing the status of the expression, which means deciding whether the analysed sequence constitutes a complete unit formally and functionally separate from others (i.e. a unit of language according to Andrzej Bogusławski), or whether this is a co-occurrence of units which is often used in this form. Another purpose of the article is to present more closely a set of linguistic features of the described phrase, especially its pragmatic and semantic properties. A short note also refers to the grammatical classification of the sequence powiem ci, że_.
  • CELINA HELIASZ-NOWOSIELSKA, ALICJA WÓJCICKA: Research on the pragmatics of speech events. The project of multimedia corpus
    The paper presents the project of research on the pragmatics of speech events. The research is carried out by the Department of Formal Linguistics (University of Warsaw). The main aim of the project is to examine various kinds of communication events performed by someone speaking. Especially, we are working to provide a detailed analysis of correlations between a speech event and a report of such an event possible to present by a Polish language user. In order to gather research material, we are constructing the multimedia corpus of Polish speech acts. It is going to include footage of all types, for example film clips, television programs, recordings of Parliament sessions, commercials. The corpus appears to be a new tool for linguists interested in pragmatics, semantics, phonetics, and other areas of language and communication analysis.
  • EWA DZIĘGIEL: The changing fate of the adjectives sowiecki and radziecki in the Polish-language press published in Soviet Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s
    The subject of research is the case of lexical synonymia in the communist press published in the Polish language in Soviet Ukraine in the years 1918–1939 – sowiecki // radziecki (as equivalents of the Russian sowietskij). The lexeme radziecki was propagated from the top-down by leading Polish communists residing in the Soviet state, and as early as 1919 it appeared in the main periodicals. Frequency analysis shows that sowiecki dominated in the press in 1920–1925, but as of 1926 radziecki gained an advantage, while it became prevailing
    from 1930. The elimination of the adjective sowiecki from communist publication practices was probably connected to its negative connotations in political propaganda and public reception in the Second Polish Republic. This line was continued by the communist authorities of the post-war Polish People’s Republic, they forced radziecki while the competing word sowiecki was at that time used by the opposition.
  • RAFAŁ ZARĘBSKI: Research perspectives of the history of Polish language in the light of the new edition of Wybór tekstów z dziejów języka polskiego (from the point of view of the member of editorial team)
    The aim of the paper is to show possibilities of use of the new edition of Wybór tekstów z dziejów języka polskiego, edited by Marek Cybulski (Łódź 2015) in the research of subfields of historical linguistics. First, the author briefly presents the anthology and then – rather than searching for language changes – focuses on the expression of continuity of the selected developments in three areas: systemic and lexical, stylistic and pragmatic and that of linguistic awareness. In conclusion, the author stresses that by recognizing a group of stable features on each language level we can expand our knowledge of history of language. We can also facilitate observation and prediction of the development of the current Polish language in which most of the undergoing processes have a long tradition.


  • RENATA KUCHARZYK: The persistent pod tytułem


  • BOGDAN WALCZAK: Wybór tekstów z dziejów języka polskiego, t. 1–2, red. Marek Cybulski


  • PIOTR ŻMIGRODZKI: Conference A Gloss to Lexicography. Between Theory and Practice. Methods of Contemporary Lexicography, Warszawa, September 22–23, 2016
  • P.Ż.: General Meeting of Delegates of the Society of Friends of the Polish Language in 2016


  • Publishing novelties
  • A list of reviewers of the annual volume XCVI